Ülevaade haridustehnoloogia ajaloost
- Mida te teadsite haridustehnoloogia ajaloost varem?
I had no previous knowladdge in educational technology history, but I have learned a lot from this exercise.
2. Mis oli uutest teadmistest teie jaoks eriti huvitav või üllatav?
According to Nicholson, P. (2007), it was new to me that E-Learning started to develop in 1960s and has evolved in different ways in Business and Education. It was interesting to find out that already in 60’s timeshared computer system were able to address concerns about children’s literacy – and system was designed, it was called PLATO . Online forums and message boards, email, chat rooms, instant messaging, remote screen sharing were also initiated along with PLATO. I was surprising for me to find out that roots of E-learning begin deep in 60’s.
Another interesting fact was presented by Molnar, A. (1997) in the early seventies at MIT, Seymour Papert developed new approach to computers in education. He developed a programming language, LOGO, to encourage rigorous thinking about mathematics. Later Papert started to work for LEGO.
Few thigs that caught my attention while reading this articles:
According to Molnar, A. (1997), James Kulik condacted performed a meta-analysis on various educational levels and was able to proof that “computer-based education could increase scores from 10 to 20 percentile points and reduce time necessary to achieve goals by one-third”. I am not sure what meta-analysis is, but I would like to find out. Then Moldar, A. (1997) speaks of theory of cognition developed , which focuses on memory processes and outlined that when theory was applied to schools – one sigma difference in school performance was achieved – this was a bit uclear to me.
Right after attempt to create Intellagent Tool, there were a time for new-technology based education and dramatic breakthroughs – Symbol System (SS). This system used arabic numerals instead of Roman numeral. Next stem was spreadsheets and information visualization by meas of graphs and charts – this is probably were came my first experience with computer science in education. Molnar, A. (1997) even outlies tha Virtual Reality ( VR) is also a form of paradigm for creating unique educational experience.
I followed my reading of (Anderson, 2011) and paper clearly states that distance education has evolved through many technologies and at least three generations of pedagogy ( social, educational and physiological development). It it clear from the article that the web sites, books, tutorials, videos from which person can learn wok effectively according to how well they are implemented and how well they are designed. Parts of the article about ‘social presents in cognitive-behaviors mode” argue that it is clear that, whether the learner is alone or a part of a learning group, learning efficiency can be improved by applying all theories at once: cognitivist, behaviorist, constructivist, and connectivism theories – all this theories play an important role and I think can not exist without each other. Author cleary states that behavioural/cognitive learning is necessary but not sufficient for quality education.
Mille kohta tahaksite täpsemalt uurida?
James Kulik at the University of Michigan performed a meta-analysis on varios educational levels and was able to proof that “computer-based education could increase scores from 10 to 20 percentile points and reduce time necessary to achieve goals by one-third”. What is meta-analysis and how did he conducted the study?
Mis jäi ebaselgeks?
Molnar, A. Then speaking of theory of cognition developed in Carnegie Mellon University ( ACT), which focuses on memory processes, it outlined that one sigma difference in school performance was achieved. I was a bit unclear what one sigma difference is? Is it one standard deviation? If yes, then one deviation according to which sigma level?
Millega te pigem ei nõustu?
I would slightly disagree with (Põldoja, 2016 p 90), author outlines that :” Therefore: Open online courses should enable anyone to observe course discussions and access learning resources without enrolling to the course or logging in to the learning environment”. I would argue that, for example, from marketing and constantly improving process point of view, it is very important to know who your audience is and what their full profile is. Mandatory registration will enable to get an important information and improve education process dramatically.
Põldoja, H. (2016). The Structure and Components for the Open Education Ecosystem: Constructive Design Research of Online Learning Tools. Helsinki: Aalto University. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-60-6993-7
Nicholson, P. (2007). A History of E-Learning. B. Fernández-Manjón, J. M. Sánchez-Pérez, J. A. Gómez-Pulido, M. A. Vega-Rodríguez, & J. Bravo-Rodríguez, Computers and Education (lk 1–11). Dordrecht: Springer. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4914-9_1
Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education.The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
(PDF) Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/50888829_Three_Generations_of_Distance_Education_Pedagogy [accessed Sep 29 2018].
Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3), 80–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v12i3.890
Sumner, J. (2000). Serving the System: A critical history of distance education. Open Learning: the Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 15(3), 267–285. http://doi.org/10.1080/713688409
Leinonen, T. (2010). Designing Learning Tools: Methodological Insights. Helsinki: Aalto University School of Art and Design. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-60-0032-9